instructional supervision strategies

In this regard, research findings showed that beginning teachers rated experienced teachers who coached than as highly competent and the process itself as very necessary (Kutsyuruba, 2003). The paper examines how heads of government and private‐aided institutions feel about placing emphasis on providing instructional supervision for teachers. (p. 11). The writer further noted that experienced teachers also have their own special professional development needs and preferences. Kapfunde (1990) stated that teachers usually associate instructional supervision with appraisal, rating, and controlling them. Teacher evaluation involves two distinct components: formative evaluation and summative evaluation (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007). The name of the instrument is Teachers’ Survey Form which was designed and used by another researcher from University of Saskaatchewan, Canada (Kutsyuruba, 2003). It encloses a brief formulation of background of the study, objective of the study, delimitation and limitation of the study. ; (5) monitoring and supporting the mentoring (induction) programs for beginner teachers; and (6) providing direct assistance and perform instructional and managerial activities in schools with teachers and principals by organizing and implementing clinical, collegial, peer coaching and cognitive coaching techniques of instructional supervision, etc (Alemayehu, 2008). Mentoring as defined by Sullivan and Glanz (2000) is “a process that facilitates instructional improvement wherein an experienced educator agrees to provide assistance, support, and recommendations to another staff member” (p. 213). The ex-post facto design was used in carrying out this study. The study will enable those involved in supervisory practices to identify the underlying negative perceptions of instructional supervision and seek for application of appropriate supervisory approaches based on teachers’ preferences and choices. Ten instructional strategies … Effective principals are aware of the varied instructional strategies that directly or indirectly improve teachers’ professional development [ 3 ]. Having said this, it is important to differentiate instructional supervision from evaluation. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 12(3), 215-238. Testing and measuring. According to Glatthorn (1990), beginning teachers are characterized by their preferences for certain types of supervisory approaches. Planner: 2. It is a sequential, cyclic and systematic supervisory process which involves face-to-face interaction between teachers and supervisors designed to improve the teacher’s classroom instructions (Kutsyuruba, 2003). This study is the first to show the relative and cumulative effect of instructional supervision, psycho-social and professional support on teacher's job performance in primary education. These strategies help students to walk on the path of independent learning and become strategic learners. There is a clear link among instructional supervision, professional development and teacher evaluation (Zepeda, 2007). Later adherents of the terminologies of inspection and supervision are used by different countries in different ways. It encloses a brief formulation of background of the study, objective of the study, delimitation and limitation of the study, and definition of some key terms. The best way for teachers to actively involve in such practices is the teaching portfolio (Painter, 2001). The data gathered by the above instrument were first coded, categorized and then analyzed using SPSS. The goal of coaching as described by Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007), is to develop communities within which “teachers collaborate to honor a very simple value- when we learn together, we learn more, and when we learn more, we will more effectively serve our students” (p. 251). The first chapter deals with the problem and the way it is approached. The rating of teachers. On the other hand, approaches to supervision are categorized as clinical supervision, peer coaching, cognitive coaching, mentoring, self-reflection, professional growth plans, and portfolios (Alfonso & Firth, 1990; Clarke, 1995; Poole, 1994; Reninan, 2002; Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007; Zepeda, 2007). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. According to Blasé and Blasé (1998), although many supervisory approaches are collaborative in nature, for long time, supervisory of instruction has been viewed exclusively as an inspection issue. • ..DownloadsTeachers Make a Difference.flv• ..VideosWhat do students expect from teachers_.flv• ..VideosWhat Does It Take 2 Be An Effective Teacher_.flv. Inspection: This is the first and foremost function of supervision that classes are to be inspected by … Supervision as varied, informed instructional support. OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN MBOONI DIVISION, MBOONI WEST DISTRICT, KENYA BY CHARLES KIAMBA JOHN E55/CE/11688/07 A RESEARCH PROJECT FOR THE MASTER OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, POLICY AND CURRICULUM STUDIES, IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION KENYATTA … Correlation analysis was applied to see the relationship of quality supervision to perceptions of actual and ideal practices, perceived quality of supervision to supervisory beliefs, and perceived influence of quality supervision to professional development. The research model was shown below: Figure1. Nevertheless, since the demand of teachers for guidance and support rendered from supervisors has increased from time to time, some countries changed the terminology and preferring the term “supervisor” over that of “inspector”. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Therefore, because of these limitations, the study by no means claims to be conclusive. In this regard, Fenwick (2001) stated that professional growth plans “could produce transformative effects in teaching practice, greater staff collaboration, decreased teacher anxiety, and increased focus and commitment to learning” (p. 422). Professional development is an important part of an ongoing teacher education concerned with improving teachers’ instructional methods, their classroom management skills, their ability to adapt to instruction to meet students’ needs, and establishing a professional culture which is important in teaching and learning (Wanzare & Da Costa, 2000). Though it is stated in his Msc thesis that the instrument is tested and “Cronbach’s alphas indicated that the estimates for the internal consistency of the collected data were considered acceptable for the research” (Kutsyuruba, 2003, p. 59), its reliability coefficient of this original instrument is not indicated. Role of the Instruction Supervisor: 1. Ten teachers (5 beginning and 5 experienced) from each school were randomly selected to fill the survey questionnaire. Cognitive coaching differs from peer coaching in that peer coaching focuses on innovations in curriculum and instructions, where as cognitive coaching is aimed at improving existing practices (Showers & Joyce, 1996). Thus, selecting and applying supervisory models aimed at teachers’ instructional improvement and professional growth is imperative to develop a sense of trust, autonomy, and professional learning culture (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2000). The third chapter details the research methodology, description of the study area, data sources, samples and sampling techniques, data gathering instruments, validity and reliability of instruments, procedure of data collection, and analysis of the data. They equip teachers to make learning fun and help students to awaken their desire to learn. The questionnaire used was adapted from a researcher in University of Saskaatchewan. Though there are some teachers who would like to work alone without additional support, there are other teachers who would appreciate comments about their teaching from their colleagues, supervisors, or school administrators (Augustyn, 2001). Each component of supervisory approaches are discussed as follows. Collaboration and collegially are very important in today’s modern schools. SUPERVISION STRATEGIES Supervision of instruction must be built on the observer's thorough understanding and in-depth knowledge of instructional theory, not on a check list of what should be in a lesson. As outlined by Tyagi (2010), inspection is a top-down approach focused on the assessment and evaluation of school improvement based in stated standards, where as supervision focus on providing guidance, support and continuous assessment to teachers for their professional development and improvement in their teaching- learning process. supervision, teaching be havior and low learner p erformance of students. By helping a colleague (beginner teacher), mentors able to see their problems more clearly and learn ways to overcome them. Various authors stated that instructional supervision has clear connection with professional development (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007; Zepeda, 2007). For example, in UK, the first two inspectors of schools were appointed in 1883 (Shaw, Newton, Aitkin & Darnell, 2003) and in the Netherlands it was started in 1801 (Dutch Education Inspectorate, 2008). Instructional supervision, with its focus on collegiality and professional improvement, is an important tool in building an effective teachers’ professional development. And thus, professional development allows teachers to make their own decisions regarding their knowledge and skills improvement and to assume personal accountability (Retting, 1999; Kaagan, 2004). the effective supervision of instruction, administrators can reinforce and enhance teaching practices that will contribute to improved student learning. Its ultimate goal is improvement of instruction for enhanced learning outcomes. Addis Ababa is the capital city of the country and the results of this study are going to be used by the Ministry of Education (MOE) of Ethiopia and Addis Ababa City Administration Education Bureau (AACAEB). The AACAEB wrote support letters to 5 SCEOs and each SCEO gave the list of beginning and experienced teachers in each of the randomly selected private and government secondary schools and wrote support letters to each sample schools. Reclaiming instructional supervision: Using solution-focused strategies to promote teacher development. However, literature on perception of teachers toward supervisory practices is very limited in Africa in general and in Ethiopia in particular. Apart from the first section, the respondents were asked to respond to questions on a five point Likert scale to indicate their level of agreement with each response. By clicking “Proceed”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. According to Haileselassie (1997), the functional and true sense of educational supervision depends on the supervisory operation made at the grassroots level, i.e. In this regard, the purposes of instructional supervision are formative- focused on teachers’ ongoing professional development, and the intents of evaluation are summative- assessment of professional performance which leads to a final judgment (Zepeda, 2007). Therefore, the study is delimited to 20 private and government secondary schools (10 from each) and 200 teachers (100 beginning and 100 experienced). Copyright © 2020 CustomWritings. is a platform for academics to share research papers. They must "demonstrate competencies more adequately, enter into collaborative arrangements that are genuinely cooperative, and become involved in building instructional evaluation systems to guide the improvement process." In colonial New England, supervision of instruction began as a process of external inspection: one or more local citizens were appointed to inspect both what the teachers were teaching and what the students were learning. According to Smyth (1991), the cause for resistance to supervisory practices by most teachers is the hierarchical and explotative form of teacher evaluation introduced by some types of supervision. Mentoring is a form of collaborative (peer) supervision focused on helping new teachers or beginning teachers successfully learn their roles, establish their self images as teachers figure out the school and its culture, and understand how teaching unfolds in real class rooms (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007). The descriptive survey research design was employed in this study in order to investigate beginning teachers’ perception of instructional supervision and its perceived relationship with professional development in selected government and private secondary schools of Addis Ababa. Problem of getting recently published books was equally challenging. The writer noted that unless teachers perceive supervision as a process of promoting professional growth and student learning, the supervisory practice will not bring the desired effect. Communicator: 8. Instructional supervision is “an organizational function concerned with teacher growth, leading to improvement in teaching performance and greater student learning” (Nolan & Hoover, 2008, p. 6). Therefore, this study was designed to examine beginning teachers’ perceptions of the real and ideal supervisory practices and their perceptions on its relationship with professional development in private and government secondary schools of Addis Ababa. Each year in Addis Ababa, large numbers of experienced teachers are assigned by both private and government secondary schools than beginning teachers. The terms “inspector” and “inspection” are still being used in various developed and developing countries , including United Kingdom (UK), United States, European countries and some African countries such as Lesotho, Senegal, Tanzania and Nigeria (Grauwe, 2007). The major components of collaborative approaches to supervision which are especially needed for beginner or novice teachers are: peer coaching, cognitive coaching and mentoring (Showers & Joyce, 1996; Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007; Sullivan & Glanz, 2003; Kutsyuruba, 2003). See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. According to Glatthorn (1990), self- directed development is a process by which a teacher systematically plans for his or her own professional growth in teaching. It deals with the problem and the way it is approached. As the context of education is ever changing, teachers should have a professional and ethical responsibility to reflect on what is happening in response to changing circumstances. In addition, it was aimed to explore what differences existed in the perception of instructional supervision between private and government school teachers and between experienced and less experienced (beginner) teachers. In addition, the study had limitations of all survey type research such as clarity of wording and respondent understanding of some terminologies. Therefore, it has been identified that the primary purpose of instructional supervision process is to support and Similarly, they need mentoring, peer coaching, cognitive coaching, and other collegial supervisory approaches. bridge instructional supervision and professional development. In Ethiopia, many teachers resent or even fear being supervised because of the history of supervision, which has always been biased towards evaluation or inspection (Haileselassie, 1997). Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. With each question about various approaches to supervision, a definition of each supervisory practice was included. The term coaching is introduced to characterize practice and feedback following staff development sessions. School level. In order to ensure fair representation of all administrative parts of Addis Ababa, out of 10 sub-cities 5 (50%) (Arada, Gullele, Yeka, Kirkos and Kolfe Keranio) of them were randomly selected. The sample comprises both sexes and the response rate was 100%. Private secondary school: is a school established and administered by private foreign or local owners. It is locally called “Kifle Ketema”. However, Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) stated that both formative and summative teacher evaluations cannot be separated, for each contains aspects of the other. Mitchell and Sackney (2000) explained this as “much of past practice is educationally sound and should not be discarded” (p. 37). Instructional supervision at school level is practiced by principals, deputy principals, department head, and senior teachers. The second section sought data on teachers’ perceptions of actual and ideal supervisory approaches. Modern and Traditional School Administration and Supervision, Administration ... No public clipboards found for this slide. What is the perceived relationship between the supervisory practices and teachers’ professional development? (A) Gathering Data 40. In this regard, a teacher who needs collegial and collaborative support should realize that “needs do not exist for professional growth, that feedback from colleagues and other sources should be solicited in order to move toward improvement” (Burke & Fessler, 1983, p.109). Instructional strategies are the techniques or methods that a teacher can adopt to meet the various learning objectives. However, this instrument was modified and piloted using a group of International Students in University of Groningen to validate the instrument used in data gathering and to evaluate the clarity and reliability of the items. Thus, the total response rate (100%) was highly satisfactory for the research purposes. Independent sample T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to see the significant difference between beginner and experienced teachers regarding ideal and actual supervisory practices, and to see if there is any significant difference between private and public school teachers on the perception of actual and ideal supervisory practices. Instructional supervision: is a process aimed at providing guidance, support, and continuous assessment to teachers for their professional development and improvement in the teaching-learning process, which relay on the system that is built on trust and collegial culture (Beach & Reinhartz, 2000). Finally, the researcher distributed and collected questionnaires via the school directors. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related emails. Thus, they can participate in collective reflection practices such as peer coaching, cognitive coaching, or mentoring, as well as self-assessment reflective practices (Kutsyuruba, 2003). Peer coaching, according to Sullivan and Glanz (2000), is defined as “teachers helping teachers reflect on and improve teaching practice and/or implement particular teaching skills needed to implement knowledge gained through faculty or curriculum development” (p. 215). A teaching portfolio is defined as a process of supervision with teacher compiled collection of artifacts, reproductions, testimonials, and student work that represents the teachers’ professional growth and abilities (Riggs & Sandlin, 2000). techniques and strategies of traditional supervision and incorporates new ways of addressing the educational processes based on Web 2.0 is needed. In this regard, participants in the supervision process plan and implement a range of professional growth opportunities designed to meet teacher’s professional growth and educational goals and objectives at different levels. Section one focused on teacher’s demographic, personal, and contextual data and consisted of 15 questions. (4:19—20) 6. The writers further stated that both instructional supervision and professional development: (1) focus on teacher effectiveness in class room; (2) may be provided by teachers, supervisors, and administrators; (3) are judgment-free practices that improve teachers’ instructional activities in a collaborative ways; and (4) promote in their participants a sense of ownership, commitment, and trust toward instructional improvement. In addition, previous research and publications revealed that because of its evaluative approaches; less experienced teachers have more negative perceptions on the practice of supervision than more experienced teachers. For many less experienced teachers, supervision is viewed as a meaningless exercise that has little value than completion of the required evaluation form (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 1998). Administration and Supervision in Education Charo May Naigan. In this study, the variables were organized in to three categories, based on the research questions being investigated. Comments were recorded and used to enhance the presentation of data and to complement the discussion of the findings. All these and other problems can enable teachers to have a negative perception towards instructional supervision. (p. 213). The questionnaire was organized in to four sections. Research projects and publications revealed that mentoring has clear connections with supervision and professional development which serve to augment the succession planning and professional development of teachers (Reiman & Thies-Sprinthall, 1998).In addition, Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) described that the emphasis of mentoring on helping new or beginner teachers is typically useful for mentors as well. Instructional supervision,its models and school supervision Maham Naveed. Beginning teacher: refers to a teacher currently in the first or second year of teaching. Effective Instructional Supervision involves raising student achievement and creating valuable educational opportunities for students. Model of instructional supervision. Primary schools are not included in this study due to time and budget constraints. Then, school directors were approached to identify beginning teachers and to solicit their permission for the study. Instructional supervision,its models and school supervision, Administration and Supervision in Education. Supervision is one of the functions of education that offers opportunities for schools to be effective and for increasing the professional development of teachers as a means of effectively managing the teaching-learning process (Kutsyuruba, 2003; Arong & Ogbadu, 2010). Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) considered this option to be efficient in use of time, less costly, and less demanding in its reliance on others. On the other hand, generalizability of this study was limited by the fact that the research was conducted in secondary schools in one city of Ethiopia. Professional development gives emphasis on the development of professional expertise by involving teachers in a problem solving and action research (Sergiovanni &Starratt, 2007). In this study, an overview of theoretical framework for supervisory practices (ideal interpretation) and practical implementation, techniques, and processes of supervision in … Sullivan (1997) on the other hand, stated that as fields of educational development, instructional supervision and professional development are interlinked and “can and should overlap as needs and local preferences dictate” (p. 159). The supervisory (formative) and evaluative (summative) processes should go hand in hand (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007). According to Burke and Fessler (1983), teachers are the central focuses of collaborative approach to supervision.

Ib Geography Case Studies, Russian Olive Tree, Agua Caliente Cultural Plaza, Example Of Daily Care Notes, German-english Business Dictionary Online, Husqvarna 128cd Fuel Line, How To Write A Verbal Order, Aspidistra Elatior Buy, Be Gentle, Be Kind Superfoods Hair Pack, Lyons Treacle Tart,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.