China and India are now the world's major cotton producers. Creating Bt Cotton is one of many biotechnology methods allowing a specific or desired trait/gene to be transferred from a subject to a plant. Arab traders brought cotton to Europe by about 1000 ce. )After, the cotton fiber is gathered from the plant, it can be spun into cotton thread. They could also research how to make and use natural plant dyes, from berries, onion skins, or beetroot. The plant grows in dry semi-humid conditions. This machine separated cotton fibers from the seeds. Cotton knit fabric is similar to that produced by hand, but modern machines might use up to 2,500 needles. Cotton was difficult to process until 1793, when U.S. inventor Eli Whitney created the cotton gin. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the … How is cotton grown? The process begins with the farming of cotton plants and moves on to combing, spinning and dying in order to produce the final material. Cotton production is a water-intensive business. Cotton is a major commodity, representing 30 – 60% of the gross value of the total agricultural production in Australian regions where it is grown (source: Australian Grown Cotton Sustainability Report, 2014). Where Cotton is Grown: Cotton is grown in 17 states, mainly in the southern portion of the United States. Cotton has been cultivated for over 5,000 years, and only halfway through the 20th century did modern farming methods move away from handpicking and horse plowing. After the cotton is harvested, the fibers are separated from dirt, debris and seeds in a process called ginning. Most of the clothes that you can find today are made of cotton. Cotton yarns are placed vertically on a mechanical weaving loom. In the case of Bt cotton, the subject is an agrobacterium called Bacillus Thuringienesis. The global average water footprint of cotton fabric is 10,000 litres per kilogram. Currently, the world produces around 25 million tons of cotton annually. This is referred to as “virtual” water - when you use water around the world as a result of your consumption. There are two types of cotton gins commonly used for this process: roller and saw gin. At the gin, the bales are all cleaned to separate the cotton fibers from dirt, lint, and the small, sticky seeds that grow as part of the ball of cotton fibers.The de-seeded and cleaned cotton is then once again pressed into bales for shipment. Read about our approach to external linking. To develop fully, the plant usually needs a growing season of 150 days free from frost. Each year, India produces an average of 5,770 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making it the … Types of materials A pair of jeans of 800 grams will cost 8000 litres. Early peoples in the Americas also grew cotton. The machine weaves horizontal rows of yarn across the vertical yarns, creating woven fabric. After ginning, the cotton fibers are compressed into bales. These are then fed to a machine called the “gin”. B. Maté has been reporting on creative industries since 2007—covering everything from Fashion Week to the latest artist to wow the Parisian art scene. Once the harvest is complete, the cotton is made into bales to be stored until it is ready to be ginned. The process begins with the farming of cotton plants and moves on to combing, spinning and dying in order to produce the final material. The roller gin uses a leather roller to pull the cotton through a blade that has narrow teeth for capturing the seeds and dirt. Cotton’s most prominent environmental impacts result from the use of agrochemicals (especially pesticides), the consumption of water, and the conversion of habitat to agricultural use. The saw gin uses a circular blade to grab the cotton fibers and pull them through a mesh that is too small for debris to pass through. “Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America”; Angela Lakwete; 2003, “Cotton's Renaissance: A Study in Market Innovation”; Timothy C. Jacobson, George David Smith; 2001. Why cotton is called the dirtiest crop in the world. (Fiber is long and thin, like hair. Give pupils some balls of raw cotton (or cotton wool) to investigate, as they watch the clip. (Science Behind Bt Cotton. Can the children pull long thin strands from the cotton, or roll and twist thin strands into thicker ones? Cotton seeds are planted in spring and the plant grows into green, bushy shrubs about one metre in height. Today, so many products are created from cotton. How Cotton Is Grown. For basic weaving — which is a basket-like grid — rows of warp yarns are strung on the loom vertically, while a shuttle weaves the weft yarn through them horizontally. A tour around a factory to find out about the manufacture of cotton fabric and the various tests it must pass before leaving the factory. It is estimated that 97% of the water in the Indus River goes towards producing crops like cotton. Pupils could finally apply their research by dyeing a plain cotton T-shirt. Seedlings emerge within approximately seven days, and mature cotton bolls appear within 55 to 80 days. Almost all of the cotton fiber growth and production occurs in southern and western states, dominated by Texas, California, Arizona, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Although cotton is a naturally occurring fibre, its production is nevertheless haunted by claims of pollution, exploitation, and slavery – yes, even today. India. During harvesting, each boll is picked by stripper harvester and spindle pickers, which are mower-like vehicles that sever and gather the cotton. The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India shortly before the Mughal era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. (n.d.)) This bacterium has two genes of interest, the Cry1Ac gene, and the Cry2Ab gene. Global Organic Cotton production jumped by more than 53% in 2006-2007 over that in 2005-2006, and then amazingly by almost 152% in 2007-2008. Table 24.14 shows the trends in the production of cotton in India. Cotton Made into Fabric alludes to any textile material made by weaving, knitting, twisting or plaiting and bonding of filaments. Following production, cotton needs to be transported and processed, further stimulating business and helping the U.S. economy. There are many varieties of cotton, but some of the most popular for manufacturing are the Gossypium arboreum L. and Gossypium barbadense L. The white fluffy balls, referred to as “bolls,” grow in clusters and encase the plant’s seeds. Since the fiber is pervasive in what we wear, eat, and use on a daily basis, its easy to forget that it comes from a crop, and must be harvested each and every year to meet worldwide demand. Copyright © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. What Is the Difference Between Acrylic Thread & Rayon? It implies that what is assembled like building. Cotton is a natural, soft fiber that grows with the seeds of the cotton plant. Cotton is a natural fibre grown on a plant related to the commonly-found garden species hibiscus. … Once here, the cotton seed is cleaned of dirt, stems and leaves. Each bale of cotton weighs 227 kilograms. The cotton planting season ranges from February 1 in southern Texas to early June in northern parts of the U.S. cotton belt. Cotton is from a cotton plant. The cotton plant grows to around 1.2 metres in height. The twill weave is slightly more intricate, because it floats or passes the weft yarn over two or three warp yarns to create a diagonal pattern. Cotton Fabric Uses Cotton production is an important economic factor in the United States as the country leads, worldwide, in cotton exportation. How Cotton is Grown After cotton has been harvested, producers who use conventional tillage practices cut down and chop the cotton stalks. Cotton production begins in the spring when cotton seeds are planted. It is grown in huge fields and the plants get fairly large. Afterwards, they are combed and bleached with hypochlorite or peroxide before the fibers are spun. Children could go on to try their hand at knitting with wool. There are many ways to weave cotton yarns, but the two most common are the basic and twill weave. The production of Organic Cotton has increased enormously over the last few years. Cotton occupies around 2.5 percent of the world’s arable land. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. It takes 10,000 liters of water to produce 1 kilo of cotton, meaning it takes about 2,700 liters to make 1 cotton t-shirt. The wads of cotton are put through a carding machine, which straightens them, allowing the fibers to lie parallel to one another. The most abundantly produced natural fibre in the world, in 2017 it was estimated that 25 million tons of cotton are produced every year. Then the mature balls are placed in machine which blows the ball away from the cotton and leaving only the fibers resembling puffy cotton balls. In contemporary manufacturing, China and India are some of the world’s largest cotton producers, accounting for approximately 32.6 percent of the market in 2011, according to the article “India, China Set for Cotton Wars on Stubborn Yields.” The cotton making process includes harvesting the fiber and spinning the yarn before the fabric is made. videos, Choosing the right material to make shoes - animation, Technology the Things We Wear: T-shirts 2. Her experience stems from a marketing background, with more than 12 years of experience consulting fashion-forward entrepreneurs. The cotton making process includes harvesting the fiber and spinning the yarn before the fabric is made. Cotton is a warm-climate crop. KS2 Todays cutting-edge machin… Pupils could also tease apart a thread of manufactured cotton. Then the strands are twisted into yarn. Cotton is planted in spring, grown over summer, and picked in autumn. Fibers are used in the textile industry, where they are the starting point of the production chain. Production: India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world though she is the world’s third largest producer of cotton after China and the USA. The cotton thread can then be made into cloth.The cloth can be used to make clothes for people and many other things. The U.S. is the largest exporter of cotton. Mexico was one of the first places where cotton cloth was used — dating back to 5,000 B.C. Currently it is grown over 6 per cent of the net sown area. Cotton is a very pesticide-intensive crop. Different types of cotton fabric require different weaves; most use a basic over-and-under weave structure. That amounts to 145,872 Metric Tons or 668,581 Bales grown in 24 countries, with India topping all other nations. The production of cotton fibre begins with the “ginning” of the harvested crop. Cotton is typically planted in the autumn and harvested in the late spring in climates where the summers are long, hot and arid. The leading producers are the U.S., China, India, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. Follow up on this work by teasing threads from another natural product - wool. Sturdier fabrics like denim use a … India is also a cotton production giant, but it consumes most of its cotton domestically. Production. The United States is ranked third in production, behind China and India. That means that one cotton shirt of 250 grams costs about 2500 litres. A basic flat knitting machine makes over a million stitches at a time and because it's programmable, it produces a variety of fabrics, shapes and designs. Common basic weave fabrics include muslin and organdy, while popular cotton twills are denim and khaki. The term texture has its origin in the Latin expression fabrica means a workshop. Cotton was a huge U.S. crop grown throughout the South, though these days only 35 percent of the cotton used in American manufacturing is even grown in the country —25 percent of which is grown in Texas. It is grown on 2.5% of the world’s agricultural land but consumes 16% of all the insecticides and 7% of all herbicides used worldwide - that’s more than any other crop in the world. The fabric is then checked for faults and goes through stretching, pilling and washing tests before it is sent out to be made into clothing. Spinning machines operate by first condensing fibers together, rolling them onto a bobbin in one long strand. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens , suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. When cotton bales arrive at the spinning plant they are opened and separated by quality. China is the world’s largest cotton producer, consumer and importer. All Cotton is produced in 80 countries around the world. Texas is the leading cotton-producing state followed by California, Mississippi, Georgia, and Arkansas. Enslaved people in the U.S. South soon produced more cotton than ever before. In most cases, automated machines plant cotton seeds in 10 or more rows simultaneously. The next step is to … It is then placed in cotton gin to clean and remove the seeds from it. Harvesting Cotton Cotton is typically planted in the autumn and harvested in the late spring in climates where the summers are long, hot and arid. In an average year, Australia’s cotton growers produce enough cotton to clothe 500 million people. The crop is harvested from the fields by striping machines, and is stored in modules. Cotton is grown in more than 50 devel oping countries. Cotton production Cotton is a natural plant fiber which grows around the seed of the cotton plant. Table 24.14 Production, Area and Yield of Cotton in India: When you buy cotton clothing you therefore “use” water from wherever the cotton was grown and produced. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. The process starts by harvesting mature cottons. Although world cotton production is dominated by China, India and the US, cotton is vital for the survival of many low income countries in Central and West Asia and Africa – it accounts, in value terms, for 26.4 per cent of Benin’s exports and 58.7 per cent of Burkina Faso’s.
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