how competence can be enhanced in psychology

(2005) outlined six foundational (first dimension) and six functional (second dimension) competencies in their “competency model.” A third dimension (i.e., stage of professional development) depicts foundational and functional competency development over the career of professional psychologists. A cube model for competency development: implications for psychology educators and regulators. Guidelines on Areas of Practice Endorsement. This is the identification of the salient ethical aspects of a situation. Third, this model addressed the clear need to make these key competencies explicit to students, and to link them to authentic and real-world practice and assessments in a transparent manner. There are many potential warrants for maintaining competency, including ethical codes and stipulations requiring it (APA, 2002). There are three obligations under the 2002 APA Ethics Code in relation to Standard 2.01 (b) (Boundaries of Competence) (Fisher as cited in Shiles, 2009). In physical activity domains, then, if the goal is for people to be motivated to be physically active or to strive for performance excellence, it will be necessary to design environments that will enhance their perceptions of competence. The concept of intrinsic motivation, or engaging in activities for the inherent rewards of the behavior itself, plays an important role in self-determination theory. The central thesis of competence motivation theory is that individuals are attracted to participate in activities at which they feel competent or capable. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 425-435. Table 2. In the applied setting, this shift has been realized via assessments of competencies that reflect real-world practices (e.g., via simulations) (Leigh et al., 2007; Lichtenberg et al., 2007). J. Psychol. Pract. White argued that organisms are intrinsically motivated to engage in interactions with their physical and social environments. doi:10.1037/a0033765, Hunsley, J., and Barker, K. K. (2011). Educ. Results from this study suggest the REST-KIT could be a useful resource for trainers and researchers. She states that although current literature suggests that when a psychologist is uncomfortable working with a client’s presenting concern, it may be in the client’s best interest to refer him or her with the understanding that the reason for referral is the psychologist is not competent to work with that particular client, this logic is being used to discriminate against clients. Prof. Psychol. Res. 36, 347–354. 57, 881–904. On a practical level, once an agreed model is established, the learning objectives associated with each component (and concurrent components) of the model could lead to the development of assessments that better reflect real-world practice and that can be empirically tested. Am. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from, PART 1400 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST LICENSING ACT : Sections Listing. Participants in the practitioner groups stated that they believed that the model represented psychology practice and was parsimonious. Testing for competence rather than for intelligence. According to recent estimates, over nine percent of the United States population has some degree of depression—a proportion that makes depression one of the most common and serious mental conditions in the country (“An Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. First, the inclusion of an explicit scientist–practitioner process was found to be imperative to include in the model and was generally lacking in other competency lists/models. The 2002 Ethics Code states in the Introduction that “in the process of making decisions regarding their professional behavior, psychologists must consider this Ethics Code, in addition to applicable laws and psychology board regulations” and “lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an ethical standard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical conduct.” Therefore, ethical dilemmas can be approached and solved by knowledge of psychology and its ethical codes. The first obligation is becoming familiar with professional and scientific knowledge. These strategies can be applied in clinical settings by clinically-based education, ethics consultations, ethics rounds, clinical supervision, and ethics committees. Psychologists must remain competent in their field to be able to practice ethically. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4(Suppl. Great Britain: SAGE. This project sought to use SMEs (both practitioner and academics) and graduate task-related information to identify the core generic competencies required for postgraduate psychology professional practice. InPsych 32, 24–26. Thus, a competency model, or a representation of psychology practice that articulates the combination and interrelatedness of competencies is needed. (2007). This study focused on using the REST-KIT with educators but could potentially be applicable for psychologists as well. Competencies in professional psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 444-451. 43, 442–451. With the consent of the participants, the data were recorded directly onto a laptop and de-identified. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4), 212-217. These meta-competencies should underpin any assessments of work placements and professional practice. A Competence Review is for the purpose of assessing a psychologist's current competence, and is therefore evaluative and educational in nature. Social competence involves being willing to talk to other people, to resolve differences through discussion, and to get to know what other people are thinking and feeling. This study sought to address this issue of the lack of a competency model by developing a competency model for the practice of psychology within an Australian context. Integrating Evidence-Based Practice, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and Multicultural Therapy: Ten Steps for Culturally Competent Practice. Over the last 40 years, competency modeling and the use of competencies to describe the characteristics necessary for effective performance have become increasingly popular (Dai and Liang, 2012; Sliter, 2015). Any facility providing mental health care services should implement some form of training, such as the REST-KIT, to insure the psychologists at that facility are ethically educated and competent to handle ethical dilemmas as they arise. Available at:, Rodolfa, E., Baker, J., DeMers, S., Hilson, A., Meck, D., Schaffer, J., et al. 59, 774–781. Second, this model reflects the realization that while students work toward attaining competencies, they often do so by acquiring discrete skill sets embedded in separate coursework units and do not understand how the competencies coherently meld together at the course level. ', Journal of Educational Psychology. To be able to do so would be valuable in educating post graduate psychology students and enable determining where remedial training may be required, thereby increasing quality of training and ultimately public safety. Each focus group comprised practitioners, academics, graduates, and students currently enrolled in a psychology course. If Psychological Competencies & Requirements has been flagged … (2014) later identified a number of deficiencies in the much cited cube model, including the general complexity of the model. 6, 37–46. The participants initially participated in a face-to-face session and thus were known to each other. Prof. Psychol. Res. He also states that knowledge of the professional literature in one’s area of practice is an ethical duty for staying up-to-date with chances in practice patterns and recent developments that may change previously accepted practices. Another approach to ethical impasses is analyzing how one chooses to view the situation at hand. Specifically, they sought to create a coherent global professional identity, provide an international recognition system for equivalence in professional preparation systems (i.e., via program accreditation and professional credentialing), and regulate professional competence and conduct. The master’s degree in psychology can lead to work as a school counselor, career counselor at a university, sports counselor, substance abuse counselor, or … 49, 200–208. The value of theoretical models in informing psychology practice has been discussed in various articles [e.g., Fouad et al. The result of the analysis from the Stage 1, Part 2 methodology (i.e., the Delphi process) contributed to the creation of an initial list of competencies (see Table 2). The REST-KIT was designed to “(a) improve the ethical and racial sensitivity of school professionals and trainees by grounding ethical decision making, in relation to racism and discrimination, in professional codes of ethics and (b) provide the necessary skills to address the ethical dilemmas in participants’ professional lives” (p. 28). However, while the cube model offers a structural representation of competency domains within psychology, it has been criticized for failing to reflect the fluidity or the various pathways of developing the competencies (Nash and Larkin, 2012). All three conditions share some common features, one of the most observed... Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue that results in social, psychological, emotional, and physical consequences. doi:10.1002/hrm.10043, Roth, A. D., and Pilling, S. (2008). One needs to be able to identify unethical situations and have the abilities necessary to correct them. doi:10.1037/h0034092, Munoz, R. F., Sorenson, J. L., Arean, P. A., Lieberman, A. F., Fields, L., Gruber, V. A., et al. As no new information emerged, the SME panel participated in three rounds that were conducted over a 5-week timeframe. Res. Pract. But students can still be enhanced in growth and these are primary opportunities for development with teens. Ind. This article examines the dark history of human experimentation on offenders and other stigmatized groups in order to substantiate the need for ethics policies. Recognizing, assessing, and intervening with problems of professional competence. Whether it is clinical, research, educational, or administrative in nature, psychologists are required to remain competent in the specific field in which they practice. Shiles (2009) states that professional competency is not a fixed construct, meaning that psychologists are either incompetent or competent. A psychologist can refer a client on these grounds without repercussions when the underlying issue is the psychologist does not want to work with that client, whatever the reason may be. Easing the inferential leap in competency modeling: the effects of task-related information and subject matter expertise. A., Jacobs, S. C., et al. The concept of competence versus performance is fundamental to the study of language. Educ. Prof. Psychol. Following the first session, the authors developed a competency model. Aligning the model to actual behaviors in psychology practice will make this model more psychology specific. Illinois General Assembly Home Page. 53, 703–740. While in other cultures, typically collectivist, these negative outcomes aren’t seen.... Research has shown that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares similar genetic roots with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. By being aware of potential conflicts in ethics beforehand, psychologists can take preventive measures to avoid having to face an ethical dilemma. You have also covered a wide range of competencies relevant to your success as a psychology professional and graduate learner. Self-determination theory suggests that people are motivated to grow and change by three innate and universal psychological needs. Additionally, competency lists could influence teaching, as traditional approaches for teaching competencies have focused on the minutiae. (2007) suggest possible strategies for increasing competence including preparation in primary education, vocational training, policy making, and support by management and research. The core competence of the corporation. According to Rogers-Sirin & Sirin (2009), Rest (1983) suggested that morality is not a unitary process but rather a multifaceted phenomenon. Yet, it is associated with poor mental and behavioral health as well as lower wellbeing and negative relational strategies. 44, 121–135. Outside of the decision-making process, psychologists can be proactive in minimizing the occurrence of ethical issues and ensuring that all involved are on the same level of ethical understanding. There have been national and international calls for a competency model that reflects the diverse and complex nature of the practice of psychology. Surround yourself with people who are more successful, more competent, and more qualified than you — you’re guaranteed to grow your competence. Prof. Psychol. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 2(10). (2007). The first version of the psychology competency model was presented to four opportunistic and independently sourced focus groups. (ii) Generating maximum amount of ideas or solutions to a given task, in order to increase the flow of thoughts and choosing the best out of them. Competency benchmarks: a model for understanding and measuring competence in professional psychology across training levels. Accordingly, a lack of meaning is associated with depression, mortality, and even suicide ideation (Harlow et al., 1986; Steger et al., 2006; Tanno et al., 2009). By remaining ignorant and incompetent of clients’ cultures, psychologists risk unethical behavior and harm to their clients. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from In this study, the researchers first identified an international trend for the use of competencies and competency models within psychology. To capture the scientist–practitioner process, the four competencies (see Figure 1) were adopted as the vertical pillars of the model. Educ. Dai, G., and Liang, K. (2012). According to Searight & Searight (2009), psychologists practicing under the APA 2002 Ethics Code will likely have to address the conflict between promoting the client’s welfare and insuring competence when delegating services. Pract. doi:10.1037/a0026964, National Prescribing Service. Proposed core competencies and empirical validation procedure in competency modelling: confirmation and classification. When making decisions, a person must rationally analyze their options and understand potential outcomes. The practice of competency modeling. People are still... Shame is an adaptive emotion. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575. The program is titled the Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Training Kit (REST-KIT) and is based upon James Rest’s (1983) four-component model of moral decision making (Rogers-Sirin & Sirin, 2009). The methodology comprised two stages. (d) When psychologists are asked to provide services to individuals for whom appropriate mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the competence necessary, psychologists with closely related prior training or experience may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied if they make a reasonable effort to obtain the competence required by using relevant research, training, consultation, or study. (See also Standard 10.10, Terminating Therapy) (APA Ethics Code, 2002). Psychol. Figure 2 shows this final iteration to the competency model. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Life-Long Competency Development in Clinical Health Psychology. They showed that the use of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) provides high quality competency inferences compared to the use of less experienced raters. Publically assessable course content that was taught by several other Australian universities was also inspected. doi:10.1017/iop.2015.35. Therefore, solutions will not be addressed within the confines of this article but rather, systematic ways to address ethical dilemmas and ways to ensure psychologists are practicing competently and with ethical obligation to uphold. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. Adults Report Depression”). doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.00009.x, McClelland, D. C. (1973). Practicing psychologists should have a firm background in these competencies which is built up in the early years of their career, during graduate school, when one first learns of all the necessary foundational competencies. Res. About The Journal | Submissions (2015). Pract. By staying up-to-date on current research, literature, and practices, psychologists can guarantee they are providing the best possible services to their clients. 2.02 Providing Services in EmergenciesIn emergencies, when psychologists provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the necessary training, psychologists may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied. Assess. The focus groups further refined, but also supported the competency model for the practice of psychology and may inform teaching, regulation, and the practice of psychology. Final competency model for the practice of psychology. But effective. One of the academics was a placement supervisor. Qual. Although many psychologists will not have the benefit of graduate training or continuing education on working with interpreters, many will need to their services given that currently, 18% of Americans speak a language other than English at home and 8% of U.S. citizens demonstrate limited English proficiency (Searight & Searight, 2009). Experiments involving human subjects are increasingly utilized in criminal justice research. (See also Standards 2.01e, Boundaries of Competence, and 10.01b, Informed Consent to Therapy. Furthermore, efforts to develop more comprehensive models have been undermined by methodological issues, such as inadequate expert review. Given this, we develop a comprehensive, novel model informed and validated by expert review. Accordingly, there is tons of research on the subject, including what it is, how it relates to similar constructs, how it can be improved, and how it impacts people in various contexts. Gallardo, M. E., Johnson, J., Parham, T. A., & Carter, J. Kaslow et al., 2007 notes that psychology must establish a culture that values self-assessment and reflective practice. The incorporation of existing materials (Campion et al., 2011) and the consideration of other models and philosophical approaches to psychology training (e.g., a scientist–practitioner focus) (see, Munoz et al., 2015) appear to have been conspicuously omitted from many current competency models and lists. Component III, moral motivation, requires having the necessary motivation or will to act in an ethical manner. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4(Suppl. Available at:, Neubert, J. C., Maintert, J., Kretzschmar, A., and Greiff, S. (2015). Notably, accurate simulations and real-world assessments hinge on the accurate identification of competencies. Psychologists may unintentionally harm their clients of culturally diverse groups by invalidating their life experiences, defining their cultural values or differences as deviant, or imposing the values of dominant culture upon them (Fisher, 2009). (2013). Psychol. Psychology Competencies. The field of developmental psychology is fraught with some very popularized but misunderstood dichotomies. Professional competence requires regular self-assessment and self-reflection on acquisition and maintenance of the skills, abilities, and training needed to perform effectively as a psychologist throughout one’s training and career. Pers. Ethical dilemmas are not new to the practice of psychology and their resolutions will never be clear-cut answers. The third domain of the Cube Model is a developmental perspective of competency. As in any scientific field, new discoveries are being made constantly and it is a psychologist’s ethical, personal, and professional responsibility to keep up with these new discoveries and utilize them whenever possible to advance the field of psychology. Given the multitude of variables involved, it is easy to see how an ethical dilemma may present itself between client and psychotherapist. The model has a matrix structure; thus, it has both horizontal and vertical features (the horizontal bars represent the meta-competencies required for the practice of psychology). Component II is moral judgment which involves formulating the morally ideal course of action through reasoning. A multitude of authors have subsequently proposed various combinations of core competencies for psychology (e.g., Rodolfa et al., 2005; Fouad et al., 2009); however, until recently, no unified set of core competencies existed. The scientist–practitioner process was also explicitly included and integrated in the model. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.01022.x, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Campion, M. A., Fink, A. This project sought to identify the key competencies required to practice psychology and to present these competencies in a model that demonstrates how melding these competencies together better reflects authentic, real-world practice. Educ. Several questions were asked at each of the three rounds. Self-efficacy has been a popular topic in general psychology and received another boost in attention once positive psychology got off the ground. For part 1 of the first stage of the procedure, materials were collected, collated, and the data gleaned were inspected and categorized into themes (Braun and Clarke, 2006; Charmaz, 2009). It is an ethical standard to remain competence throughout one’s psychological career and it is through competency that one can make sound ethical decisions. Hum. Of the 18 participants, 16 (88.9%) identified as female and two (11.1%) as male. doi:10.1177/0081246314522371, Rodolfa, E., Bent, R., Eisman, E., Nelson, P., Rehm, L., and Ritchie, P. (2005). The SME panel also answered several rounds of questions at first face-to-face, and later online. The 2002 Ethics Code consists of the Introduction and Applicability Section, Preamble, General Principles, and Enforceable Standards. Using the Delphi technique to identify the cancer education requirements of general practitioners. Many of these enforceable standards address the area of competence. This paper discusses the APA code of ethics as it pertains to competence, current dilemmas regarding competency in psychology, and recommendations to improve competency in clinical practice. )), S5-S26. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (b) When psychologists become aware of personal problems that may interfere with their performing work-related duties adequately, they take appropriate measures, such as obtaining professional consultation or assistance, and determine whether they should limit, suspend, or terminate their work-related duties. The enhanced EPPP, like the current form of the EPPP, is being designed for all psychology service providers (i.e., Health Service Psychologists and General Applied Psychologists) who must be licensed in order to practice independently as psychologists. Psychology Board of Australia. Psychol. In general, a multi-method approach for competency identification and modeling has been supported in order to increase reliability of methods used (Rodriguez et al., 2002). doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.8.774, Kaslow, N. J., Rubin, N. J., Forrest, L., Elman, N. S., Van Horne, B. The first overarching principle of psychology practice was unanimously identified as the presence of the scientist–practitioner model and the exhibition of the consequent knowledge, skills, and behaviors. There is no absolute way to guarantee a psychologist beginning their career has been properly trained in ethics or is competent in the areas in which they desire to work. Manage. doi:10.1111/ap.12055, Hatcher, R. L., Fouad, N. A., Campbell, L. F., McCutcheon, S. R., Grus, C. L., and Leahy, K. L. (2013). A graduate participant of this focus group commented: “This makes a lot of sense. The second improvement was to use a broken line for the scientist–practitioner arrow to reflect the latent nature of the process. Resour. Psychol. 38, 463–473. Sporrong et al. From these sessions, a draft psychology competency model was developed, including both competencies that are underpinned by the scientific-practitioner process, and meta- competencies. Educ. While not … Shiles (200… The first domain is composed of foundational competencies. For years we’ve seen powerful leaders and thinkers emerge, not as individuals, but as groups. Bus. 8. Find a mentor. Better Choices, Better Health. Available: Advancing the Culture of Competence. Fisher, C. B. The two subsequent sessions were conducted via email. If every institution providing mental health services, whether it be a hospital, prison, school, or private practice, regularly held ethics rounds, psychologists and other staff members associated with them would be much more knowledgeable about potential ethical problems and how to properly handle them.

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